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Screen Space 22: The Rhetorical Situation Part 2—Purpose and Context

Posted by Jennifer L. Bowie, Ph.D. on June 4th, 2012

[Podcast Transcript]

Welcome to Screen Space, your podcast about creating usable, accessible, effective, and efficient web, blog, and digital media design for the everyday (and non-expert) designer. This is episode 22 of Screen Space “The Rhetorical Situation Part 2—Purpose and Context.” In this episode, I review rhetorical situation, which I introduced in episode 21. I cover the remaining two key parts of the rhetorical situation, purpose, and context, to help you design and develop stronger websites, blogs, and other digital media, purpose, and context. I wrap this series up next episode with an example of an actual rhetorical situation.

I am your host, Dr. Jennifer L. Bowie. I am a Senior Usability Research Analyst for The Home Depot, which means I conduct usability research on The Home Depot website.  I also research and teach in areas related to digital media, web, and blog design.

First, let me welcome some of my newest audience members. Welcome to my new listeners from India, Vietnam, and France. Welcome and design well!

Review of the Rhetorical Situation

Audience, purpose, and context are three key considerations in rhetoric, technical communication, and really any sort of communications. These three concepts are the rhetorical situation. Thoroughly considering and writing or designing for these three areas will make your text or media stronger, more effective, and clearer. I discuss the rhetorical situation and the first area, audience, in more detail in episode 21. Let’s now explore purpose and context.

Purpose

When you consider purpose there are two different purposes to consider your purpose and the purpose of your audience. Let’s examine your purpose first. Why are you creating this text or media? In short, what is your purpose? What goals, results, ends, aims, means, or objectives are you trying to meet? Your purpose could include:

  • To persuade
  • To entertain
  • To inform
  • To educate
  • To get the audience to feel a certain emotion: such as awe, shock, happiness, fear, pity, and compassion.
  • To get the audience to act: You may want to get the audience to vote for your candidate, to donate money to your cause, to buy your book, or do something else.
  • To change your audience’s opinion
  • To advise or recommend
  • To share
  • To seduce
  • To help
  • To communicate

Many of these may overlap. You may also find that your purpose includes several of these. You could be trying to persuade someone to change their mind and then act.  You may be sharing your photos for other’s entertainment. Here are some example purposes:

  • Example 1: For the photography blog I used as an example in the Usability and Usability Testing 101 series the purpose I multiple:
    • To get the audience to buy photographs
    • To share photographs for entertainment
    • To inform through photography tips
    • Example 2: For this this podcast, my purpose is also multiple:
      • To inform and educate my listeners on ways to create usable, accessible, effective, and efficient web, blog, and digital media design
      • To persuade my listeners to follow my suggestions, advice, and tips
      • To get my listeners to act—that is create usable, accessible, effective, and efficient web, blog, and digital media design
      • To advise my listeners on usable, accessible, effective, and efficient web, blog, and digital media design practices

The other purpose category is the purpose of your audience. This is touched on in Screen Space 21: The Rhetorical Situation Part 1—Audience. What is the purpose of your audience? To help determined purpose consider these questions:

  • Why do they come to your site, blog, or digital media? What are their reasons?
  • What are their goals or objectives when they come to your site?
  • How does your site benefit your users?
  • What task or tasks are they coming to your site to complete?
  • Why do they choose your site, blog, or digital media?

You will likely determine many different purposes and a task or two for each purpose.

I put together a worksheet to help you determine your purpose and the purpose of your users. Please, check it out.

Once you have your purposes and the audiences’ purposes, look to see if there are any overlaps. Hopefully there are.  Your main purposes should correspond to some of the purposes of your audience. That concludes purpose, now to context.

Context

Context is the situation around the text or media. This includes the specific situation of creation or use and the greater context like culture. The context includes constraints such as time and the environments of creation and use.   As with purpose, context can be divided into two categories: your context and the audience’s context. Once again, let’s begin with your context.

To determine your context consider:

  • What lead to the writing or design of this text? Why are you writing or designing this text?
  • What constraints do you have on this text? For example, do you have limited time? Limited space? Limited technology? How does this impact your writing or design?
  • What environment are you writing or designing this text in? How does this impact your writing or design?
  • What culture or society are you writing or designing this text in? Is this the same as your audience? How does this impact your writing or design?

Perhaps your audience is your boss and your goal is to persuade her to act on your recommendations. If you are writing a recommendation report at work with many co-workers stopping by to ask questions, and you have only a short amount of time to meet a deadline your boss gave you the report and your writing will be impacted by this context. Your text will be much different than if you are writing a blog post on a topic you love, which happens to be the same recommendations, for your pleasure and you have as long as you want. Your language will be different to meet the different purposes, as will length, content, and more. The two texts will be quite different, even if the audience and purpose is the same.

The context of your audience is also very important to consider. I find, however, that this is often ignored or only vaguely considered by many of my students before we cover it in class. The context of use can and should greatly impact the writing and design of your text. So, after thinking about your context, consider your audience’s context. Determine:

  • Environment and setting: What environment and setting will your audience use your text or design in? At home? At work? While running? While driving and mostly focused on driving? In a well-lit lab with little space, a huge warehouse with poor lighting, or a noisy shop floor?
  • Constraints: What constraints is your audience under while using your text? Do they only have 30 seconds to find out how to complete the task? Are they highly distracted? Are they attempting a high risk task, such as saving a life? Can they look at your podcast? Or are they too busy driving, running, or baking? If they are cooking can they till interact with the text with dirty hands?  Do they have limited time, access, space, or other things?
  • Tools and Technology: What tools and technology will you user have when accessing your text?  Are they using a cell phone? A desktop with two huge screens? What technology will they use to access your text? What speed are they connecting to the internet—if relevant? Will they have a clipboard around? Post-it notes? Some way to jot down the instructions or tips?
  • Culture: What culture or society are they reading or accessing this text in? Is this the same as your culture? How does this impact your writing or design?
  • Other considerations: What other things about the audience’s context of use impact use? What can you do about these things?

To fully explore the audience’s context, let’s use explore context for the two examples I discussed in purpose:

  • Example 1: For the photography blog I used as an example in the Usability and Usability Testing 101 series the context of use could be:
    • Environment and setting: Home on a laptop or desktop. Decent lighting and a comfortable chair and environment. Distractions could include family, pets, phone, and the computer itself. Normally viewed at night or during the weekend.
    • Constraints: Often viewed during leisure time, so minimal time constraints for the photographs. However the tips may be viewed under a rushed situation where they are trying to find information quickly. Generally, this is a low risk and low stress situation. No other real constraints.
    • Tools and Technology: Accessed with a high speed internet connection on a desktop or laptop. Other tools that may be needed such as paper for notes, writing utensils, the credit card for purchases, and so on should be handy.
    • Culture: The audience has a similar general culture. However, they are not immersed in the photography culture and not as knowledgeable as the author/photographer.
    • Other considerations: They may have many windows open on their computer and be multitasking.
    • Example 2: For this this podcast, your context of use may generally break down to two categories: mobile or on the go listening on a mobile device, or stationary sitting at a computer. I will explore the mobile context:
      • Environment and setting: Tablet or Mobile device including cell phone and iPod. Setting varies greatly: could be at home doing chores; Outside running, walking, or doing yard work; could be driving or taking a train; could be at the gym or at work. Lighting and distractions very greatly.
      • Constraints: Could have limited access to the technology playing the podcast, so interacting, such as looking at the screen or adjusting the volume could be difficult. Time could be a constraint if the people are commuting to work or have a short time set for the run, drive walk, or workout. According the NPR, the average US commute is 25 minutes, so I try to keep my podcasts under 25 minutes. Could have a moderate to even a high level of distractions. I do not want to endanger my audience’s life while they are driving.
      • Tools and Technology: Podcast downloaded onto mobile device. The mobile device is the technology. Tools could include an arm band, earphones, and the cords needed to connect the podcast to the car to listen. Additional tools may be hard to access. I should not require my users to write things down or use any other sort of tools beyond the regular tools they need to access my podcast. I put the transcript online to give them later access to the resources, links, and more, so they do not need to write anything down. I also put the transcript in the mp3 file and on the blog for easy access when they have finished their run, commute, or laundry folding.
      • Culture: The greater culture for the audience is similar to my culture, but they are likely less informed and not an expert, so I need to adjust my language and make other considerations.
      • Other considerations: I want to make it easy for my listeners to access the transcripts and share the podcast. I also want to provide a way for audience members to be able to access my information regardless of any disabilities.

I also put together w worksheet to help you determine your context and the context of your users. Please, check it out.

And that covers your audience’s context and wraps up context. To summarize the whole episode:

  • We began with a Review of the Rhetorical Situation: Audience, purpose, and context, which are three key considerations in any type of communication.
  • We then moved on to purpose: Purpose includes your purpose and the audience’s purpose. Think about why you are writing or designing this text and why your audience is reading or accessing it.
  • Finally we discussed context: Context also includes your context and the context of your audience. For both start with the “why” and then consider environment, constraints, tools & technology, culture, and anything else that is relevant.

Join me later for the rest of The Rhetorical Situation Part 3—An Example. Thanks for listening to Part 2—Purpose and Context.

If you have questions, comments, or thoughts on what you want me to cover please send me an email at jbowie@screenspace.org or check out the Screen Space blog—www.screenspace.org. You can also follow Screen_Space on Twitter for hints, tips, advice, news, and information on  designing websites, blogs, and other digital media texts. Also, check out the blog for a transcript of this podcast complete with links and resources. If you enjoyed this podcast, please put a review up on iTunes or tell your readers and listeners via your blog, podcast, Tweet, or the social media of your choice.

Have fun and design well!

Screen Space is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. So, feel to share this is a site that doesn’t consider your context of use, but don’t change the podcast, do give me and Screen Space credit, and don’t make any money off of it.

Screen Space’s opening music today is “African Dance” by Apa Ya off of Headroom Project and the closing music is “Survival” by Beth Quist off of “Shall We Dance”. Both these selections are available from Magnatune.

Episode 22 Links and References:

Worksheets:

Past Screen Spaces podcasts you may want to refer to:

Resources:

NPR. “Study: Americans Commute an Average 25 Minutes.” Morning Edition. October 12, 2007. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=15218380

Other links:

  • Magnatune: http://www.magnatune.com/

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icon for podpress  Screen Space 22: The Rhetorical Situation Part 2—Purpose and Context [15:28m]: Play Now | Play in Popup | Download

Screen Space 21.5: A Metacast on What’s up with Screen Space

Posted by Jennifer L. Bowie, Ph.D. on March 5th, 2012

[show notes]

Welcome to Screen Space, your podcast about creating usable, accessible, effective, and efficient web, blog, and digital media design for the everyday (and non-expert) designer. I am your host, Dr. Jennifer L. Bowie. In this episode I’ll talk about what is up with Screen Space.

I am providing only brief show notes here. I cover three things:

  • Update on my career
  • My plans for Screen Space
  • My recent publications

Updates on My Career

I recently took a position at a Senior Analyst of Usability Research at The Home Depot. I do usability research on their website and digital content, and I love it.

My Plans for Screen Space

  • Every other Monday (12:01 am) I’ll post a Screen Space Podcast
  • The off Mondays (wit out podcasts) I’ll post a typeface of the week blog entry
  • Wednesdays and Fridays I’ll post tips of the day
  • Once a week I’ll post at least one other blog entry

My recent publications

If you have anything you would like me to cover in the podcast, let me know and I’ll consider it for after I have finished the Audience, Purpose, and Context series!

If you have questions, comments, or thoughts on what you want me to cover please send me an email at jbowie@screenspace.org or check out the Screen Space blog—www.screenspace.org. You can also follow Screen_Space on Twitter for hints, tips, advice, news, and information on  designing websites, blogs, and other digital media texts. Also, check out the blog for a transcript of this podcast complete with links and resources. If you enjoyed this podcast, please put a review up on iTunes or tell your readers and listeners via your blog, podcast, Tweet, or the social media of your choice.

Have fun and design well!

Screen Space is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. So, feel to send a copy to your favorite members of your audience, but don’t change the podcast, do give me and Screen Space credit, and don’t make any money off of it.

Screen Space’s opening music today is “African Dance” by Apa Ya off of Headroom Project and the closing music is “Survival” by Beth Quist off of “Shall We Dance”. Both these selections are available from Magnatune.

 
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Sound Usability!

Posted by Jennifer L. Bowie, Ph.D. on February 26th, 2012

I just got back from the wonderful Symposium on Usability, Information Design, and Information Interaction to Communicate Complex Information. I have some posts planned covering some of the content from the Symposium.

I presented at the Symposium, combining my love of usability with my love of podcasts and podcasting: “Sound Usability: Usability heuristics and guidelines for user-centered podcasts.” I put together this page for my slides, handouts, and the example podcasts (which I did not have time to go over during the presentation). If you are interested in podcasts (especially usable podcasts), usability, or what I’ve been up to, do check out this page! If you have a podcast or if you plan to start making one, you may find this particularly helpful. I know at least a few of the audience members did. There may be a new podcast or two out there after my presentation.

Tip of the day: Do not require location-based services, but allow them!

Posted by Jennifer L. Bowie, Ph.D. on September 19th, 2011

Do not require location-based services on your website, blog, or other digital media, but do allow them. According to Pew Internet, “28% of American adults use mobile and social location-based services.”  If you want to include location-based services in your website, blog, or other digital media, do so. But do not require your users to employ location-based services. Since only slightly more than a quarter of American adult use these services, requiring location-based services will only limit your users (by about 72%). Make using location-based services easy for users new to them, but offer rich alternatives for users who do not want to use location-based services.

For more information, check out: “28% of American adults use mobile and social location-based services” by Kathryn Zickuhr and Aaron Smith for Pew Internet. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2011/Location.aspx

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Tip of the Day: Analyze your audience!

Posted by Jennifer L. Bowie, Ph.D. on September 7th, 2011

In the last Tip of the Day, I suggested that writing for one’s audience would lead to a stronger text. To do so, you must analyze your audience. When analyzing your audience, first consider demographics, like:

  • Age
  • Sex
  • Location
  • Language
  • Race
  • Ethnicity and Culture
  • And much more

Next consider how the audience is using your text or media:

  • Motivation
  • Emotions
  • Perceptions and Attitudes
  • Key Characteristics
  • And more

Once you have analyzed your audience based on demographics and use characteristics, you should have a good idea of who your audience is. So, write for and to that audience!

To find out more, including descriptions of these audience analyze areas: Screen Space 21: The Rhetorical Situation Part 1—Audience

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Tip of the Day: Write to your audience for a stronger text

Posted by Jennifer L. Bowie, Ph.D. on September 6th, 2011

If you write to your audience your text/media will be more successful, effective, efficient, and usable. Audience is the most important of the three parts of the rhetorical situation. If you do not fully consider and write or design for the audience, it doesn’t matter your purpose, context, or anything else. You were unsuccessful. If they can’t read it, don’t get it, or don’t care, your purpose has not been met, and context does not matter. So, whenever you are writing or designing media you need to think about who you are writing or designing for. Be as specific as possible, because the more specific you are the more you will be able to write to that audience.

To find out more: Screen Space 21: The Rhetorical Situation Part 1—Audience

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Exciting news after this short break!

Posted by Jennifer L. Bowie, Ph.D. on September 1st, 2011

Screen Space is taking a few days of vacation. Come back next week for exciting news, Screen Space 22: The Rhetorical Situation Part 1—Purpose and Context, new Tips of the Day, the Typeface of the Week, and more!

Audience, purpose, and context are three key considerations any of communication. You must think about who you are writing to, why you are writing, and what the situation is (yours and theirs). If you consider these three things, your communication will be clearer and more effective. To find out more check out Screen Space 21: The Rhetorical Situation Part 1—Audience and the forthcoming parts 2-4 in the series.

From/Reference: Screen Space 21: The Rhetorical Situation Part 1—Audience

Tip of the Day: How to figure out what the reading level of your text is

Posted by Jennifer L. Bowie, Ph.D. on August 30th, 2011

In yesterday’s Tip of the Day, I discussed how the average US adult reads at an 8th grade reading level. So, if you are writing something to be read by the average American, you need to write at an 8th grade reading level. Today’s tip shows you how to figure that out. In Word 2010:

  • go to the File tab
  • select Options
  • click on Proofing
  • In the Proofing menu go to the section labeled “When checking spelling and grammar in Word” and select the “Show Readability Statistics
  • Click okay
  • Then go to the review tab, and check your spelling and grammar
  • Once done a “Readability Statistics” window will pop up. At the bottom it tells you the grade level.

Other options:

I touch on this, in regards to audience (and promised to do this) in Screen Space 21: The Rhetorical Situation Part 1—Audience.


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Screen Space 21: The Rhetorical Situation Part 1—Audience

Posted by Jennifer L. Bowie, Ph.D. on August 30th, 2011

 
icon for podpress  Screen Space 21: The Rhetorical Situation Part 1—Audience [20:26m]: Play Now | Play in Popup | Download

[Podcast Transcript]

Welcome to Screen Space, your podcast about creating usable, accessible, effective, and efficient web, blog, and digital media design for the everyday (and non-expert) designer. This is episode 21 of Screen Space “The Rhetorical Situation Part 1—Audience.” In this episode, I discuss the rhetorical situation in general and then focus on audience and how to analyze your audience. In the next episode, “Rhetorical Situation Part 2—Purpose and Context,” I cover the last two areas of the rhetorical situation. Finally in the third and fourth parts of this series I provide a full example of an analysis of the rhetorical situation.

I am your host, Dr. Jennifer L. Bowie. I conduct research and have taught in areas related to digital media, web, and blog design. Previously I mentioned being an assistant professor at GSU. However, this is no longer the case and I am currently looking for a job in usability, user-centered design, and/or social media. Stay tuned and I’ll provide details at the end of this podcast.

Before I get to talking about the rhetorical situation and audience, I’d like to welcome some of my newest audience members. Welcome to my new listeners from Hayneville, Alabama; Mansfield, Massachusetts; and Boise Idaho. Thanks for listening! Now, let’s get to the topic.

The Rhetorical Situation: Audience, Purpose, and Context

Audience, purpose, and context are three key considerations in rhetoric, technical communication, and really any sort of communications. Whenever I taught a writing class, I spent a lot of time focusing on these concepts and they were key considerations in my grading. Did the student consider their audience? The context? The purpose? If they did consider these three parts of the rhetorical situation, then they likely have at least a decent paper, website, blog, or whatever the medium.

In some ways audience, purpose, and context are a lot like the 6 Ws of journalism: who, what, when, where, how, and why. Except these are not Ws we are trying to answer explicitly in our writing to tell the news or story, these are Ws we consider in our writing and attempt to answer implicitly not explicitly. In journalism we try to explain who the news happened to, what happened, where it happened, when it happened, how it happened, and why it happened.

In other forms of writing and communication we want to think about this question in regard to not telling a story but making our point understandable. So the “who” becomes the audience—who are we writing to? The context involves many Ws: what, when, where, and how. What is the user’s context? When will they use it? Where will they use it? How will they use it? This leaves us with purpose and why. Why will they use it? Why do they need it? Why do we want them to think, feel, or do whatever it is we are trying to get them to think, feel, or do?

Audience, purpose, and context do go beyond the 6 Ws, so let’s explore each in more detail starting with audience here, and purpose and context in the next episode.

Audience

Audience is the most important of these three parts of the rhetorical situation. If you do not fully consider and write or design for the audience, it doesn’t matter your purpose or context. You were unsuccessful. If they can’t read it, don’t get it, or don’t care, your purpose has not been met, and context does not matter. I’ve talked about audience before, because it is such an important concept. For instance, in Screen Space 12: Usability & Usability Testing 101 Part 2—Selecting Users I talked a lot about figuring out who your users are—or your audience—for usability testing. You may want to go back and listen for more information. I also promised to do a future episode on persona developing, and you can still look forward to this and it will help you take this episode and episode 12 further.

Please note: I do use the terms “audience” and “users” pretty interchangeably in this blog and podcast. Audience is often used more for writing and users for technology and media use. Users is also, of course, a term used more in usability, user experience, and user-centered design, which is where I have focused much of my work. Often when people talk about audience it is a vaguer concept and usually users is a more concrete concept, often based in statistics and research. But the reverse of either can be equally true and I do not use one term to denote more or less concreteness.

The biggest difference in the term to me is use. Users are the actually people who use your text and/or media. Audience is the often larger group of people you are writing or designing your media for.  The audience will, or should, include users. The users will likely include people you did see in your audience. For example, for our photography blog example we used in the Usability and Usability Testing 101 series, one group of users were fans—middle aged, middle class people who came to the site wanting to purchase photos or find photography tips. In many ways this might be better described as an audience—a group of people we are designing and writing the blog for. We will, for example, write photography tips for these fans who are amateur photographers—keeping in mind their photography experience levels, their income levels, time commitments, lifestyle, and so on. Since they are busy with career and family, but have a bit of spending money we may suggest things that save time but cost money. Our actual users should include people from this group, but could include a lot of other people who come to our site. Maybe we have some college student amateur photographers who stop by and some teenagers who know their parents like the site and want to buy them a gift photo. We will only know about these other users who are outside of our audience profile if we have some way to obtaining data about our users. That might make a good later episode.

For clarity, I will try to use the terms “audience” and “users” here in very precise ways. I will use “audience” to mean the group of people who will read, listen, watch or otherwise use our media and who we are designing and writing this media for. So, “audience” is more of an ideal and goal in many ways. They are who we want to reach. I will use the term “users” to mean the people who actually use—whether it be read, listen, watch, or whatever—our media who may or may not be part of the audience.  Users are who we are actually reaching, and they may be who we want to reach and they may not be. If our users and audience differ much we should probably reexamine our purpose, context, and audience.

Whenever you are writing or designing media you need to think about who you are writing or designing for. Be as specific as possible, because the more specific you are the more you will be able to write to that audience. Often the first time I ask students in my classes who their audience is I get this very vague answer—such as “everyone.” This is unacceptable unless they are writing and designing a text in all the languages of the world, for those that are illiterate, and even for little babies who can understand very little and may see a report as a good thing to drool on. Sometimes they give me something a bit less vague, like Americans, but I bet you can see the problems with that. I will tell them that if it doesn’t take them at least a paragraph to describe their audience they have not thought about them enough. I suggest the same to you. Keep working on who your audience is until you can write a good paragraph if not more on them. You need to analyze your audience.

Audience Analysis

To analyze your audience, I recommend first thinking of the demographics of your audience. These include:

From this list, you should already have a good idea of who your audience is. You may also have begun to figure out ways to write or design for this audience just from determining their demographics. Next consider how they are using your text or media. Some of this overlaps with context, which we will cover in more detail later. Use Characteristics include

Demographics and use characteristics may point to multiple audiences. That is fine and very common. You are likely not writing or designing for a single audience. In fact, in technical communication we often talk about primary audiences and secondary audiences.  Primary audiences are the intentional audiences of your text or media—who you are directly writing and designing for. Secondary audiences are others who may influence the primary audience or are other people your text or media reaches. These may be people who need to approve your media, like a boss. They could be parents, if your primary audience is kids. Or your secondary audience may be other audiences your message is reaching that are just not in your primary audience. For example, these could be the college students and teens I mentioned above—not in your primary audience of middle aged users, but they still may be audience members. So, make sure you recognize all major audience groups and break them into your primary and secondary audiences.

I will link to a table you can fill out to help you analyze your audience in the transcript in both PDF and doc forms.

Now, you should have an excellent idea of who your audience is. The next step is often taking this and turning it in to user profiles and personas. I’ll cover this later this year. Instead, we’ll continue with the rhetorical situation and discus purpose and context in the next episode.

In conclusion, let’s review audience and audience analysis:

  • Audience, purpose, and context are key components of the rhetorical situation. Considering the journalist’s 6Ws can help—who is your audience? What, when, where answer context. Why responds to purpose.
  • Audience is the most important of the three key components of the rhetorical situation.
  • Audience and users overlap. Audience is who we want to reach and users are who we actually reach.
  • To analyze our audience we should consider:
    • Demographics: Age, sex, socioeconomic status and more.
    • Use characteristics: Such as motivations, goals, and tasks.

Thanks for joining me for Screen Space 21: The Rhetorical Situation Part 1—Audience. Please come back next week for Part 2—Purpose and Context and in two weeks for Part 3—An example. Later, I’ll start discussing typography in more detail.

As I mentioned in the intro to the podcast, I am looking for a job. As my loyal listeners may be able to guess, I am interested in a position in usability, user-centered design, and/or social media, or another academic position teaching these areas. My preference is in the Atlanta area or telecommuting, though I may consider locations somewhat nearby. If you are interested in my skills or know someone who is please contact me at jbowie@screenspace.org and check out my portfolio at www. screenspace.org/port.

Screen Space is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. So, feel to send a copy to your favorite members of your audience, but don’t change the podcast, do give me and Screen Space credit, and don’t make any money off of it.

As I mentioned in the intro to the podcast, I am looking for a job. As my loyal listeners may be able to guess, I am interested in a position in usability, user-centered design, and/or social media, or another academic position teaching these areas. My preference is in the Atlanta area or telecommuting, though I may consider locations somewhat nearby. If you are interested in my skills or know someone who is please contact me at jbowie@screenspace.org and check out my portfolio at www. screenspace.org/port.

If you have questions, comments, or thoughts on what you want me to cover please send me an email at jbowie@screenspace.org or check out the Screen Space blog—www.screenspace.org. You can also follow Screen_Space on Twitter for hints, tips, advice, news, and information on  designing websites, blogs, and other digital media texts. Also, check out the blog for a transcript of this podcast complete with links and resources. If you enjoyed this podcast, please put a review up on iTunes or tell your readers and listeners via your blog, podcast, Tweet, or the social media of your choice.

Have fun and design well!

Screen Space is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. So, feel to send a copy to your favorite members of your audience, but don’t change the podcast, do give me and Screen Space credit, and don’t make any money off of it.

Screen Space’s opening music today is “African Dance” by Apa Ya off of Headroom Project and the closing music is “Survival” by Beth Quist off of “Shall We Dance”. Both these selections are available from Magnatune.

Episode 21 Links and References:

Past Screen Spaces podcasts you may want to refer to:

Resources:
Audience Analysis Tables: PDF or doc

References:
Matthew W. Brault, “Review of Changes to the Measurement of Disability in the 2008 American Community Survey.” U.S. Census Bureau.  http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/disability/2008ACS_disability.pdf

Other links:
Magnatune: http://www.magnatune.com/

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